Newsletter April 2024

Rawan Anani, Larmes de Gaza 2023

For the past six months, Gaza has witnessed the most odious and horrific scenes of its history. How does one describe the indescribable? How does one uncover and bring to light injustice, even in its most hidden obscurities? How does one escape from the paralyzing voyeurism of horrendous images or from the meaningless statements? 

The statistics about the number of victims killed and injured, repeated by the media to shock the audience, are indeed horrifying. But what is also intolerable is the injustice and inhumanity that causes people to starve day after day, to search desperately for unsanitary water, from a drop of water to quench their unquenchable thirst, for electricity to recharge a telephone which can still penetrate the outside world. We must go beyond the tragic statistics and examine the injustices suffered on a daily basis by those living in Gaza, ranging from the sleepless nights, the desperate prayers that struggle to be expressed amidst a deep hunger, their walks through ruined streets, the clothes stained with the blood of innocents reeking of the acrid sulfur smell of weapons. This year, the fasts of Ramadan and Lent are terribly trying and severe. The holidays of Eid al-Fiṭr and Easter will carry the bitter taste of the injustice that is taking place just steps away from Egypt.

Conferences

Jean Druel, OP gave a talk at the conference “On the Phenomena of Agreement in Arabic” held in Paris on February 29ᵗʰ and March 1ˢᵗ by Cermom, Sorbonne University, and Inalco. His talk was entitled: “Ḥawāshī and the Transmission of Sībawayh’s Kitāb: How Commentary Traditions Arise and Die in the Margins”.

Lectures and talks

On March 5ᵗʰ, Jean Druel, OP gave a lecture at the Grand Orient de France on the topic of “Ethics of Dialogue”.

On March 9ᵗʰ, Emmanuel Pisani, OP gave a training course at the Center for the Intelligence of Faith in Paris on the topic of “The Fatiha, Key to Islamic Doxa and Praxis”.

On March 13ᵗʰ, Emmanuel Pisani, OP was invited to the seminar at the Institute of Eastern Christians. He gave a talk on the topic of “The IDEO and Islamic-Christian Dialogue”.

On March 13ᵗʰ, Emmanuel Pisani, OP gave a lecture entitled “Horizons of Human Fraternity” at the Marist Cultural and Spiritual Center in Toulon.

On March 14ᵗʰ, as part of the continuous training day for Catholic education of the Diocese of Var, Emmanuel Pisani, OP gave the following talk in Ollioules: “Monks and Monasticism: Islamic Perspectives”.

On March 15ᵗʰ, Emmanuel Pisani, OP gave two talks on “Keys to the Middle East” at Saint Joseph High School in Ollioules, for the final year classes.

On March 21ˢᵗ, Emmanuel Pisani, OP gave a lecture entitled “Allahu Akbar: History and Meaning of a Theological Formula” at IDEO in in collaboration with French-speaking association Caire Accueil.

On March 21ˢᵗ and 22ⁿᵈ, Alberto Ambrosio, OP, participated in the conference “Women and Religions in the Mediterranean” held at the French Institute – Saint-Louis Center. During this conference, he moderated the session entitled “Women and Feminisms Facing Sacred Texts”. Please refer to the program for more details (in French) …

Anawati Chair

  • Seminar “Salaf in the classical age. Building an authority figure”

On March 26ᵗʰ, Mr. Matthieu Terrier, a professor at the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), gave the following lecture at IDEO: “The Primitive Community in Early Shiite Sources”.

  • Postdoctoral scholarship jury

On March 28ᵗʰ, Emmanuel Pisani, OP, director of IDEO, Professor Aziz Hilal, a member of IDEO, and Mr. Mourad al-Riffi, director of the Institute of Arabic Manuscripts, reviewed the 43 applications received for the selection of post-PhD scholarships on critical editions of Islamic heritage texts (each lasting 18 months). The results will be announced publicly during the month of April.

  • Seminar at al-Azhar Center for French Language Teaching (CEF)

On March 20ᵗʰ, Emmanuel Pisani, OP led a seminar session at al-Azhar Center for French Language Teaching (CEF) on the topic “The Congress on Human Fraternity: Issues and Perspectives”.

Islamic Studies Scholarships

  • Pre-doctoral or doctoral scholarship for 10 months (2024-2025)

The French Institute of Islamic Studies (IFI), the French Institute of Oriental Archaeology (IFAO), and the Dominican Institute for Oriental Studies (IDEO) are collaborating to fund a pre-doctoral or doctoral scholarship for 10 months, from September 1ˢᵗ, 2024, to June 30ᵗʰ, 2025. Deadline for application: April 30ᵗʰ, 2024. For more information…

  • Summer School: Learning Arabic through Islamic Heritage Texts

The IFI, IDEO, and IFAO offer a Summer School from July 15ᵗʰ to 28ᵗʰ dedicated to the study of Islamic tradition texts in Arabic for students in Islamic studies or affiliated fields, currently enrolled in a master’s or PhD program at a European university or institute. Deadline for application: April 15ᵗʰ, 2024. For more information (in French)

Visits

On March 29ᵗʰ, we welcomed two Franciscan brothers: brother Milad Shehata, director of the Franciscan Cultural Center downtown, and brother William Abdelmeseh, director of the Franciscan School in Assiut.

Scholars’ House

During the month of March, we had the pleasure of welcoming to the Scholars’ House Mrs. Rocio Daga, Professor of Religious Studies at Ludwig-Maximilians University in Munich, accompanied by a group of three students, as well as Ms. Ivana Kvetanova, an archaeologist and historian graduated from the Pontifical Gregorian University and the Pontifical Institute of Christian Archaeology.

Publications

Dominique Avon, « L’islamologie pour la période contemporaine. Héritages et enjeux en contexte français », dans Mohammad-Ali Amir-Moezzi, L’islam et l’examen scientifique. Une quête renouvelée, Paris, Cerf, « La Bibliothèque de l’IFI », 2024, p. 107-133.

Emmanuel Pisani (dir.), Théologie musulmane du pluralisme religieux, avec la collaboration de Cédric Baylocq, Paris, Cerf, 2024.

Emmanuel Pisani, « ‘Si Dieu l’avait voulu, il aurait fait de vous une seule communauté’ (S. 5, 48). Pluralisme contemporain et tafāsirs classiques », dans Emmanuel Pisani (dir.), Théologies musulmanes du pluralisme religieux, Paris, Cerf, 2024, p. 21-49.

Emmanuel Pisani, recension de l’ouvrage : « Lejla Demirli, Mujadad Zaman, Tim Winter, Christoph Schwöbel, Alexei Bodrov (eds.), Theological Anthropology in Interreligious Perspective, Sapientia Islamica 5, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2022, 267 p. », Islamochristiana, 2023, p. 447-450.

Emmanuel Pisani, « Le document sur la fraternité humaine, une boussole pour aujourd’hui », Revue Foi, n° 80, 2024, p. 47-49.

عمّانوئيل پيزاني، إميليو بلاتي الدومنيكيّ (١٩٤٣-٢٠٢١) من مولينبيك إلى مولينبيك، مجلة الفكر المسيحيّ، عدّد ٥٨٣-٥٨٤، العراق، مارس ٢٠٢٣.

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Newsletter June 2024

May saw the inauguration of the Anawati Chair’s the “Religions and humanities” certificate, under the direction of Aziz Hilal. This innovative course brought together contemporary Muslim thinkers who are re-thinking the theoretical framework of classical theological approaches. We also invited erudite professors who provided a comprehensive overview of the current state of research in the history of religions and social sciences. These works have often been published in European languages, and sometimes, but not systematically, in Arabic. This certificate offers an opportunity to broaden the horizons of Egyptian students from various backgrounds and institutions. After the presentations by the speakers, there followed a sometimes lively, but always respectful and high-quality debate. During the month of June, each participant will write a personnel essay evaluating the relevance of the teachings provided over the course of the four sessions. They must produce a personal critique, demonstrating their ability to adopt a critical distance towards works whose theses or projects may sometimes be tentative, but which merit reflection and challenge certain preconceived ideas. The fight against religious extremism relies on our ability to be challenged by the social sciences. It is in this spirit that we celebrate the success of this certificate program. May it be the cornerstone of our intellectual and educational commitment against the instrumentalization of religions. Anawati Chair Certificate in “Religions and human sciences” The “Religions and human sciences” certificate covers a course based on sociology, anthropology, psychology, history and political science. The course, held in Arabic, took place every Friday in May at the IDEO’s premises. The Chair had the honor to welcome the following speakers: On May 10ᵗʰ, Prof. Mohamed Haddad, a Tunisian thinker and philosopher, gave a lecture on the topic “What does it mean to reform religion?”. On May 17ᵗʰ, Prof. Jabbar al-Refae, an Iraqi thinker, gave a lecture on the topic “Religion versus the new human sciences: For a New Theology”. On May 24ᵗʰ, Prof. Nader Hammami, a Tunisian lecturer, gave a lecture on the topic “Religion between historical discourse and the constants of belief”. On May 31ˢᵗ, Prof. Abdel Gawad Yassin, an Egyptian thinker, gave a lecture on the topic “Constants and variables in the religious system”. Seminar “Salaf in the classical age. Building an authority figure” On May 21ˢᵗ, Adrien Candiard, OP, member of IDEO and specialist in Islamic studies gave the lecture “The authority of silence”, a general conclusion of the seminar. Lectures and talks On May 15ᵗʰ, Jean Jacques Pérennès gave a lecture in Tréguier on the topic “The Spiritual marks of the Monks of Tibhirine (Algeria)”. On May 22ⁿᵈ, Dennis Halft, OP, gave an online lecture on the topic “Discussing the Bible and the Qurʾān: A Hitherto Unknown Missionary’s Work in Persian from Early Modern Times”, during the panel “Mirrors of Truth: Paradigm Shifts in Indo-Persian Missions and Interreligious Polemics’”, Session II, at the European Academy of Religion, in Palermo. On May 22ⁿᵈ, Dennis Halft, OP, gave a lecture on the topic Polemical Works by Jewish Converts to Islam – A Subgenre of Muslim Anti-Jewish Polemical Literature? Some Evidence from Persian Texts”, Lecture at the Research Group “Judæo-Persian and Persian Textual Landscapes: Towards an Intellectual History of Medieval Iranian Jewry”, at Israël Institute for Advanced Studies, in Jerusalem. On May 23ʳᵈ, during the study days “al-ʿaql wa-l-īmān [Reason and faith]”, organized by IDEO and the Franciscan Cultural Center, Emmanuel Pisani, OP gave a talk entitled “Al ʿaql wa-l-nūr fī fikr al-Imān al-Ġazālī [Reason and light in the thought of Imam al-Ġazālī]”. Additionally, Jean Druel, OP participated in this study days with a talk on “ḥaqīqah masīḥiyya, ḥaqīqah islāmiyya [Muslim truth, Christian truth]”. Among other speakers, Adrien Candiard, OP gave a talk entitled “Ibn Taymiyya wa taʿāruḍ al-ʿaql wa-l-naql ”, while Matthieu Palayret, OP gave a talk on “ʿālam al-ṭabīʿa wa ʿālam al-niʿma fī fikr Ṭūmā al-Aquīnī  [The world of nature and the world of grace in the thought of Thomas Aquinas]”. Interreligious study days “CreAction” in Stuttgart From May 3ʳᵈ to 5ᵗʰ, interreligious study days took place for students in Islamic and Christian theology, as well as Jewish studies, on the topic “CreAction: Interreligious approaches for climate Justice” in Stuttgart, Germany. They were organized by Dennis Halft, OP from the Faculty of Theology in Trier, and his colleagues from the Center for Islamic Theology at the University of Münster, the Faculty of Theology at the University of Leipzig, and the Weltethos Foundation. Juries On May 2ⁿᵈ, Emmanuel Pisani, OP participated in the jury evaluating the applications for the summer school program entitled “Deepening Arabic language through Islamic heritage sources”, in partnership with the French Institute of Islamic Studies and the French Institute for Oriental Archaeology. Out of the 28 candidates, the jury selected the following applicants: Ms. Chloé Lecomte-Planche, Ms. Raphaëlle Ebran, Ms. Riham Mokrani, Ms. Tamar Kvartskhava, Ms. Yasmine Mohamed Khalil, and Ms. Yesmine Karray. Also selected were Mr. Achraf Et-Taoussi, Mr. Ahmed Taha Gueye, Mr. Baudouin de Cernon, Mr. Cédric Molino-Machetto, Mr. Ismaël Darwish, and Mr. Tom-Younès Oubelkhir. On May 14ᵗʰ, Emmanuel Pisani, OP participated via video conference in the thesis defense jury of Mr. Hazem al-Rahmany. The thesis was entitled “Between tradition and modernity: Qurʾānic hermeneutics in the works of Fazlur Rahman, Nasr Abu Zayd, and Abdolkarim Soroush”. The jury was made up of Mrs. Olga Lizzini, professor at Aix-Marseille University and thesis director; Mrs. Kalthoum Hamda, associate professor at the University of Paris Nanterre and rapporteur; Mr. Emmanuel Pisani, associate professor at the Catholic Institute of Paris, director of IDEO, and rapporteur; Mr. Youssouf Sangaré, associate professor at INALCO and thesis co-director; Mrs. Meryem Sebti, research director at CNRS Jean Pépin Center UMR 8230 and examiner; and Mr. Jakob Skovgaard-Petersen, professor at the University of Copenhagen and examiner. On May 29ᵗʰ, the jury for the annual Islamic Studies IFI/IDEO/IFAO scholarship met. It was awarded to Ms. Tessa Larivière-Ammari. Scientific Committees On May 14ᵗʰ, Emmanuel Pisani, OP participated in the Scientific Committee of the French magazine Proche Orient Chrétien. From May 14ᵗʰ to May 18ᵗʰ, Emmanuel Pisani, OP participate

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Newsletter May 2024

Here are some updates about Diamond-ILS, the cataloging application designed by Fr. René-Vincent du Grandlaunay back in the 1990s (initially under the name AlKindi). Thirty years later, the adventure continues! Diamond-ILS is now shared by 11 libraries or research centers, 7 of which are particularly active: IDEO, of course, which uses it for all its resources (monographs, articles, journals, on paper or electronically); the Arab Manuscripts Institute in Cairo, which, thanks to funding from the BnF, is currently cataloging a microfilm collection of manuscripts found in Yemen; the Giorgio La Pira Library in Palermo, which specializes in contemporary Muslim cultures; the Commission Léonine in Paris, for its collection devoted to the works of Saint Thomas Aquinas; the Saint Mark Foundation, which reports to the Coptic-Orthodox patriarchate in Cairo and catalogs various collections of Coptic manuscripts; the Vatican Apostolic Library, for its collection of Arabic manuscripts; and the Saulchoir Library in Paris, specializing in Christian humanities and religious studies. Each library has its own online catalog, but they all contribute to the same repository in a collaborative manner, enabling links to be established between their collections. The LRM/RDA model, which Diamond-ILS implements natively, enables the editorial history of works (different editions and translations, publications, reprints, etc.) to be presented in a single record, as well as the cultural history of works (commentaries, refutations, sequels, etc.). Diamond’s current ambitions are manifold: integrating new types of document (archives, papyri, maps, etc.); to build up a precise, sourced repository of Arabic, Latin and Coptic works and authors; to record the relationships within and between these repositories, in order to draw up a genuine map of knowledge and heritage; to improve the display of increasingly complex data, in order to make it accessible to as many people as possible, without sacrificing its academic quality; to find new partners in cultural fields that complement the current ones (Hebrew, Syriac, Armenian, Ethiopian, Sanskrit, Chinese studies, etc.), in order to extend this cartography. ) in order to extend this mapping and highlight the richness, complexity and interconnection of human knowledge. Diamond-ILS is currently run by the non-profit organization LRM-CS in Paris. Anawati Chair Seminar at al-Azhar Center for French Language Teaching (CEF) On April 17ᵗʰ, Mr. Seniguer Haoues, Lecturer and Director of the Diploma in Contemporary Arab World Studies at Sciences Po Lyon, led a seminar on “How to study Islam in a minority context? The French example”. Lectures and talks On April 19ᵗʰ, Jean Jacques Pérennès, OP gave a lecture at the Academy of Human Sciences in Baghdad, introducing a conference on the Iraqi personality. The topic of his talk was “The challenge of becoming a person between the individual and the community”. On April 22ⁿᵈ,  Alberto Ambrosio, OP gave a talk entitled “Clothing in Republican Turkey (1925-1934)”, as part of the seminar on “Aesthetics and Clothing in the Near and Middle East”, organized by Professor Ida Zilio-Grandi, at Ca’ Foscari University (Venice). Seminars On April 24ᵗʰ, Emmanuel Pisani, OP led the seminar on the topic “Dirāsat al-Ġazālī ʿalā yad al-mustašriqīn: al-mufāraqa al-makšūfa” [Orientalists’ studies of al-Ġazālī: the paradox revealed], with around forty Indonesian students of al-Azhar organized by the Lingkar Studi Filsafat Girinata center. Teaching From April 15ᵗʰ to 18ᵗʰ, Emmanuel Pisani, OP taught a 24-hour course on “The Great religious traditions” to around 40 students at the Higher Institute of Religious Sciences. (ISSR) of the Catholic Institute of Toulouse. From April 16th to 26th, Adrien Candiard, OP, gave his annual course in Islamic theology at the Pontifical Institute for Arabic and Islamic Studies (PISAI) in Rome. At the end of April 2024, Jean Druel, OP, taught a total of 40 hours of Biblical Greek, for beginners and intermediate students, as part of the Master of Theology program at the Sakakini Catholic Institute of Religious Sciences in Cairo. Radio On April 21ˢᵗ, Dominique Avon was interviewed for a program on freedom of conscience on Radio France Visits On April 10th, we had the honor of receiving a visit from the Delegation of the Conference of Bishops of France, composed of: Mᵍʳ Eric de Moulins-Beaufort, Archbishop of Reims, President of the Conference of Bishops of France (CEF); Mᵍʳ Laurent Ulrich, Archbishop of Paris; Mᵍʳ Matthieu Rougé, Bishop of Nanterre; Father Hugues de Woillemont, General Secretary of the Conference of Bishops of France (CEF); Mrs. Céline Reynaud-Fourton, Director of International Affairs. We also had the pleasure of welcoming members of the French Catholic association Œuvre d’Orient, including: Mᵍʳ Pascal Gollnisch; Mrs. Armelle Milcent, Director of Communications; Mr. Bertrand de Margerie, Mission Officer for Egypt; Mr. Michel Petit de La Perrelle; and Mrs. Isabelle Karaiskos, Journalist at KTO. Scholars’ House  During the month of April, we had the pleasure of welcoming to the Scholars’ House Mr. Sami Benkherfallah, a professor in medieval history at the University of Poitiers and beneficiary of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs scholarship.

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Newsletter March 2024

Twenty-two young people from the Middle East, including Iraq, Egypt, Jordan, and Lebanon, participated in the Abu Dhabi Congress on Human Fraternity from February 4ᵗʰ to 8ᵗʰ, 2024. Jean Jacques Pérennès, OP shared with us his feeling that one of the reasons for the success of this congress was their presence. Abdelrahman, one of the twenty-two, expressed his joy and gratitude for being able to speak “as brothers” to all the university experts who came to present their papers on “human fraternity”. Ayman Omar expressed his conviction at the end of the congress that only dialogue can make us brothers, regardless of our respective cultures. Nourhan appreciated the examples of success that were presented, contrasting with the violence in current events; she feels inspired to encourage institutions to work for dialogue. Malak rejoiced that this reflective work could play a positive role in the education of young people and thus open up less fragmented horizons for them… While awaiting the proceedings of the congress to be published in Les Cahiers du MIDÉO, for us as organizers, the mission is accomplished, if only because it is just beginning. Anawati Chair Congress in Abu Dhabi From February 4ᵗʰ to 8ᵗʰ, the “Impact and perspectives of the Document on Human Fraternity” congress was held in Abu Dhabi, organized by the Pluriel Academic Platform, with the support of the Anawati Chair. Three members of IDEO participated in the congress and delivered the following presentations: – Emmanuel Pisani, OP: “The sacrament of the brother: a theological re-reading of the writings of Christian de Chergé”. To watch the presentation in French… – Jean Jacques Pérennès, OP: “From the Nostra Aetate declaration to the Abu Dhabi Document: Re-reading a historical and theological trajectory in the Catholic approach to Islamic-Christian dialogue”. To watch the presentation in French… – Dominique Avon, “Azharis, representations of Christianity, and the difficulties of Islamic-Catholic dialogue (1940s-2010s)”. To watch the presentation in French… Conference “Literal meaning” From February 15ᵗʰ to 17ᵗʰ, the conference on the literal meaning of scriptures was held in IDEO. During this conference, speakers from various nationalities gave the following talks: – Adrien Candiard, OP (IDEO, Cairo), “The literal meaning in Muslim worlds”; “The literal meaning in Islamic theology”. – Ms. Sumi Shimahara (Sorbonne University, Paris): “The literal meaning in Christian worlds”. – Mr. Walid Saleh (University of Toronto): “The Abode of Luminaries. Cairo, Abū Ḥayyān al-Gharnāṭī (d. 745/1344) and the relocation of Tafsīr to Egypt”. – Ms. Gerda Rummel-Heydermann (Freie Universität, Berlin): “Literal exegesis and legal discourse in the early Middle Ages”. – Mr. Robert Gleave (Exeter University): “Interpretations of the Literal Sense. Muslim Legal Hermeneutics in Interdisciplinary Context”. – Mr. Franciscus Anastasius Van Liere (Calvin University, Grand Rapids): “The literal sense of prophetic discourse”. – Ms. Catarina Belo (American University, Cairo): “Averroes and Literal meaning”. – Ms. Sophie Delmas (LEM – UMR 8584, Paris): “The Bible heard and seen. Literal meaning in preaching and images in the late Middle Ages”. – M. Fares Gildas Gillon (Iremam): “Literal meaning in the Ismaili tradition”. – Mᵐᵉ Barbara Crostini (Uppsala University): “Literal meaning in Byzantium”. Seminar “Salaf in the classical age. Building an authority figure”  On February 20ᵗʰ, Francesco Chiabotti (INALCO), lecturer, lead the following seminar session as part of the series of seminars on the authority of the salaf in the classical age: “The Sufis and the Salaf”. Seminar “Religions and human sciences” Registration is now open for the “Religions and Humanities” Certificate, taught under the supervision of Mr. Aziz Hilal,, and to be held on Fridays in May 2024. For more information in Arabic… Internship Agreement On February 27ᵗʰ, IDEO signed an internship agreement with Mr. Thibault Brosset Heckel, a student at the School of Humanities and Management (Ircom). He will teach French for specific purposes at al-Azhar Center for French Language Teaching (CEF) until July 2024. Lectures and talks On February 1ˢᵗ, Mr. Aziz Hilal participated in the conference “Otherness in Dialogue”, organized by the research teams ERLIS of the University of Caen and ERIMIT of the University of Rennes 2, during which he gave a talk entitled “Reflecting from the language of the other: Fārābī and the Greek Language”. On February 6ᵗʰ, Alberto Ambrosio, OP gave a talk on Sufism, Islam and Turkey to an audience of 200 final-year students at the Lycée Athis-Mons in the Paris suburbs, following an exhibition on Konya organized by Manuel Maicas, OP and the students themselves. On February 21ˢᵗ, as part of the Night of Ideas organized by the French Institute of Egypt, Mr. Aziz Hilal participated with Mr. Nathan Devers in the inaugural lecture entitled “Social Networks: Agents of polarized opinions or vectors of intellectual diversity?”. Scholarships The French Institute of Islamic Studies (IFI), the French Institute of Oriental Archaeology (Ifao), and the Dominican Institute for Oriental Studies (IDEO) are partnering to fund a pre-PhD or PhD scholarship for 10 months, from September 1ˢᵗ, 2024, to June 30ᵗʰ, 2025. For more information in French.. Summer School in Islamic Studies IFI-Idéo-Ifao The French Institute of Islamic Studies (IFI), the French Institute of Oriental Archaeology (IFAO), and the Dominican Institute for Oriental Studies (IDEO) offer a Summer School dedicated to the study of texts of the Muslim tradition for master’s or PhD students in Islamic studies or affiliated with Islamic studies, enrolled in a European university or institute. The Summer School will take place from July 15ᵗʰto 28ᵗʰ, 2024. For more information in French… Visits On February 19ᵗʰ, we welcomed Mr. Thomas Würtz, Scientific Director of the Orient-Institut Beirut. On February 27ᵗʰ, we welcomed a visit from Mrs. Mona Sabry, Director of al-Azhar Center for French Language Teaching (CEF) until July 2024. Scholars’ House In December we had the pleasure to receive in the Scholars’ House Mr. Nils Fischer, director of the Near East Unit of the Catholic Academic Exchange Service (KAAD); Nadir Boudjellal, PhD student in Arabic, Medieval and Modern Studies, and has been awarded the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs scholarship; and Mr. Matthew Crippen, researcher at the Pusan National University, Korea,

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